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It appeared on various corporate items, such as cannon and coins.The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top (see figure for example of the Amsterdam chamber logo).Some fleets were lost, but most were successful, with some voyages producing high profits.In March 1599, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the 'Spice Islands' of Maluku, the source of pepper, cutting out the Javanese middlemen.At the same time, the Portuguese trade system was unable to increase supply to satisfy growing demand, in particular the demand for pepper.Demand for spices was relatively inelastic, and therefore each lag in the supply of pepper caused a sharp rise in pepper prices.The company's economic activity in Mauritius largely contributed to the extinction of the dodo, a flightless bird that was endemic to the island.Around the world and especially in English-speaking countries, the VOC is widely known as the "Dutch East India Company".

was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade.Half the crew were lost before the expedition made it back to the Netherlands the following year, but with enough spices to make a considerable profit.In 1598, an increasing number of fleets were sent out by competing merchant groups from around the Netherlands.The company was formed to profit from the Malukan spice trade, and in 1619 it forcibly established a capital in the port city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).Over the next two centuries the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory.

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